As a parent, watching your toddler take those exciting steps toward growth and learning is a source of immense joy. However, it can be incredibly frustrating and concerning when you notice your little one suddenly going backward, losing skills they had once mastered. This is referred to as developmental regression, which is more common in toddlers than you think.
Understanding developmental regression is important for caregivers to provide the necessary support their child needs to regain lost skills and continue progressing. This article will explore developmental and speech regressions in toddlers, what might be causing them, and, most importantly, how to help your child move forward again.
What is Developmental Regression in Toddlers?
Developmental regression in toddlers is when a child appears to lose previously acquired developmental milestones and skills. This is characterized by the exhibition of a decline or backward movement in their developmental progress.
This occurrence can concern parents and caregivers as it may indicate an underlying issue, such as regressive autism, that requires attention. Here are some examples of developmental regression in toddlers:
Social Regression: Toddlers may suddenly become withdrawn or less interested in social interactions, including playing with peers or responding to their names.
Communication Difficulties: A toddler who already said their first words and was previously speaking words or simple sentences may stop doing so or experience a significant decrease in their speech and language skills. This can manifest as a loss of vocabulary or difficulty in forming coherent sentences.
Motor Skills Regression: Some children may decline their motor skills. For instance, a child who could stack blocks or use utensils may lose the ability to perform these tasks effectively.
Toilet Training Regression: A child in the toilet training process might suddenly start having accidents, even though they were making progress previously.
Regression in Play Skills: Toddlers may revert to playing with toys and activities more typical of younger age groups, such as engaging in repetitive behaviors or fixating on a single toy.
Emotional and Behavioral Regression: This can include increased tantrums, mood swings, or difficulty regulating emotions. A child may become more irritable and anxious or exhibit behaviors like hand-flapping or repetitive movements.
What is Speech Regression in Toddlers?
Speech regression, or language regression in toddlers, is a decline in a child’s ability to speak or communicate. This means the child was previously acquiring speech and language skills, and then there was a sudden loss of skills. Here are some examples of speech regression in toddlers:
Loss of Vocabulary: A child who was once able to name and identify common objects or people may suddenly forget these new words and have difficulty using them.
Difficulty Forming Sentences: Toddlers may struggle to form simple sentences or express their needs and thoughts clearly, even if they were doing so before.
Regression in Pronunciation: Previously correctly pronounced words may now be pronounced incorrectly, leading to a noticeable decline in speech clarity.
Reduced Use of Speech: A toddler might become less inclined to engage in conversations or respond to questions or comments, leading to decreased verbal interaction. They may instead revert to pointing at objects to communicate their needs.
Echolalia: Echolalia is a form of speech regression where a child repeats words or phrases they've heard but may struggle to generate meaningful, original speech.
Causes of Developmental and Speech Regression in Toddlers
If you notice a developmental regression in your toddler, the first thing you may think of is autism because this is a common sign in autistic children or some other developmental or articulation disorder.
However, developmental and speech regression in toddlers can be caused by various factors, such as major life changes. Understanding these causes is crucial to help you understand your kid better.
Here are some common causes:
Learning a New Milestone: Sometimes, when toddlers are busy learning a new skill or developmental milestone, they might temporarily forget or lose some of the skills they've already learned. For example, if they're focused on learning to walk, they might forget a few words they used to say. In cases like this, a regression should not cause alarm. Once they master the new skill, they’ll progress in the previously learned skill.
Medical Conditions: Certain conditions or illnesses, such as infections, can disrupt a toddler's development and communication skills, causing regression. When toddlers get sick, especially with high fevers, it can make them feel too tired or uncomfortable to practice newer forms of communication. So, instead, they revert to their simplest form, such as babbling. However, once the child is better, they will likely regain their previous skills and progress as usual.
Major Life Changes: Sometimes, major changes in a toddler's life, such as starting daycare, having a new caregiver, moving into a new home, or welcoming a new sibling, can temporarily disrupt their development and speech skills. Significant stress or traumatic events in a toddler's life, such as losing a loved one or an accident causing a big life change, can also lead to regression as they struggle to cope emotionally with this life event. These major changes can create stress, translating into anxiety for the toddler, causing them to revert to a “baby-like” state. As with the causes above, regression caused by major life changes should work out over time.
Hearing Problems: If a toddler has trouble hearing properly, it can affect their speech development. For instance, a toddler with a chronic ear infection will likely find hearing sounds difficult. This can muffle their speech and lead to a language regression.
Lack of Stimulation: If a toddler doesn't have enough opportunities for play, exploration, and interaction, it can slow down their development and speech skills.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): If the causes listed above do not explain your child’s regression, you might need to consider the possibility of a developmental disorder, such as ASD. Autism is a condition that can lead to both developmental and speech regression in toddlers. The symptoms of an autism-caused regression vary from those caused by other life changes. Typically, kids with autism develop normally during their first year. By their second year, the signs of autism begin to show. While speech regression is a major symptom, it is not the sole determining factor. Other symptoms of autism include:
Repeating the same phrases
Repetitive word use
Difficulty communicating both verbally and nonverbally
Lack of social interest and interaction
If you notice these signs related to autism, speak to your child’s pediatrician as early as possible to potentially carry out a diagnosis of autism to review receiving intervention services.
It's important to remember that every child is different, and the causes of regression can vary from one child to another. If you notice regression in your child's development or speech, it's a good idea to seek help from healthcare professionals specializing in pediatrics, such as pediatricians or speech therapists, to identify the specific cause and develop an appropriate plan for intervention and support.
How Is a Developmental or Speech Regression Diagnosed?
If you notice any of the characteristics listed above in your toddler, chances are they’re going through a regression. To be sure, it’s always best to visit a medical practitioner.
Diagnosing developmental or speech regression in toddlers typically involves a thorough evaluation by healthcare specialists. Here's an overview of the diagnostic process:
Medical Evaluation: The first step is often a medical evaluation to rule out any medical conditions that could be causing the regression. This may include checking for illnesses, infections, or other health issues affecting a child's development.
Developmental Assessment: A developmental assessment evaluates the child's overall development. This assessment may involve observing the child's behavior, social skills and interaction, play, and motor skills. It can help identify areas of regression and whether there are delays or deficits in multiple domains.
Speech and Language Evaluation: If speech regression is a concern, a speech and language evaluation is conducted by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). The SLP assesses the child's speech and language skills, including their ability to understand and use spoken language, articulation, and fluency.
Hearing Evaluation: Hearing tests may be conducted to rule out hearing impairment as a possible cause of speech or developmental issues.
Developmental Screening Tools: Pediatricians often use standardized developmental screening tools, such as the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) or the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), to assess developmental milestones and screen for potential developmental disorders.
Psychological Assessment: In some cases, a psychologist or developmental psychologist may be involved to assess cognitive and behavioral functioning. This assessment can help identify underlying developmental disorders.
Parental Input: Parents and caregivers play a crucial role in the diagnostic process. They provide valuable information about the child's developmental history, regression patterns, and any concerns they may have.
It's important to note that the diagnostic process can vary depending on the specific concerns and the child's age and developmental stage. Early intervention services may be recommended if developmental or speech delays or regression are identified. These services may include speech, occupational, physical, and educational support tailored to the child's needs.
How Can Parents Support Their Kids Through Regression
Supporting children through regression, whether it's developmental or speech regression, can be challenging for caregivers but is crucial for toddler well-being. Here are some ways parents can provide support:
Stay Calm and Patient: Children can sense your emotions. Therefore, staying calm and patient with your kids is important, even when you're concerned about their regression. Rather than pressure them to resume practicing their lost skills, reassure them that you're there to help.
Seek Professional Evaluation: If you notice regression that lasts for more than a brief period or seems severe, consult a pediatrician, speech therapist, or developmental specialist. Professional evaluation can identify underlying issues, and early intervention often leads to better outcomes for children experiencing regression.
Maintain Routine: Toddlers thrive on routine, and predictable routines can provide security during times of change. Therefore, try to keep their daily schedule consistent and regular. You can use visual schedules to help toddlers understand and anticipate daily routines.
Encourage Communication: For speech regression, encourage communication in any way your child can manage. This may include gestures, pointing, speech sounds, or using pictures. Additionally, praise their efforts to communicate and assure them that you see and understand them.
Engage in Play: Play is an excellent way to support development, promote social interaction, and build skills in toddlers. Engage in activities such as playing together, reading books, and using toys that encourage language development and motor skills.
Offer Comfort: Regression can be unsettling for young children. Offer them comfort as possible through cuddles, soothing words, or a favorite stuffed animal. It is important to let them know that they are not alone and that you're there to support them.
Limit Stressors: If major life changes or stressors contribute to your toddler’s regression, try to minimize them or provide additional support and reassurance during these times.
Celebrate Small Steps: Recognize and celebrate your child's progress, no matter how small. Positive reinforcement can motivate them to continue trying.
Seek Support for Yourself: Caring for a child undergoing regression can be emotionally taxing. Don't hesitate to seek support for yourself, whether through friends, family, or counseling.
Explore Early Intervention Services: If the regression is related to developmental delays, such as a language delay, inquire about early intervention services. These programs can provide specialized support and therapies to help your child catch up.
Educate Yourself: Learn about your child's condition or diagnosis, if applicable. Understanding what's causing the regression can empower you to support them effectively.
Give Space and Independence: While offering support, allow your child some independence and the opportunity to try things independently. This can boost their confidence.
If you notice a developmental or speech regression in your toddler, there is no cause for alarm. All you have to do is show your child unconditional love and support throughout their journey of growth and development. However, if a regression continues for an extended period or presents other symptoms, it might be best to consult a professional.
While carrying out intervention, remember that every child is unique, and what works for one may not work for another. Therefore, tailor your support to your child's specific needs.